Screening is a process of identifying apparently healthy people who may be at increased risk of a disease or condition. They can then be offered information, further tests and appropriate treatment to reduce their risk and/or any complications arising from the disease or condition
Clinical breast examination and mammography are encountered as the best screening methods for breast cancer.
Mammography is an X-ray examination of the breast. This procedure should only be performed when indicated by a physician.
Usually mammography is performed in 2 views, lateral and cranio-podal, for both breasts.
Mammography should be interpreted in a clinical context, due to particular situations in which palpable masses don’t always have an X-ray expression or mammographic lesions which cannot be found at clinical examination.
Breast ultrasound is a frequently used method of tumor diagnosis, which is using the physical characteristics of ultrasounds for identifying and distinguishing between various types of breast tumors.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is a noninvasive medical test that helps physician’s diagnoses lesions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the breast. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD.
Positron emission tomography, also called PET imaging or a PET scan, is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. Today, most PET scans are performed on instruments that are combined PET and CT scanners. The combined PET/CT scans provide images that pinpoint the location of abnormal metabolic activity within the body. The combined scans have been shown to provide more accurate diagnoses than the two scans performed separately.
A breast biopsy is a surgical procedure in which part or all of a suspicious breast growth is removed and examined, usually for the presence of cancer. The growth sample is suctioned out through a needle or cut out using a surgical procedure.
The sample is then examined and evaluated under a microscope by a pathologist to identify non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant) tissue. The basic aim of a breast biopsy is to determine whether or not a worrisome lump is cancer and, if it is cancer, what type it is. When no cancer is detected, the diagnosis of a benign or harmless lump is reassuring.
IHC, or ImmunoHistoChemistry, is a special staining process performed on breast cancer tissue removed during biopsy. IHC is used to show whether or not the cancer cells have HER2 receptors and/or hormone receptors on their surface. This information plays a critical role in treatment planning.
|Stage IIIB||T4||N0, N1, N2||M0|
|Stage IIIC||orice T||N3||M0|
|Stage IV||orice T||orice N||M1|
For medical consultations in the specialized ambulatory of the Bucharest Oncological Institute “Prof. Dr. Alexandru Trestioareanu” you would need the following:
Daca in urma consultatiei medicale se decide necesitatea unei internari/interventii chirurgicale programate va sunt necesare urmatoarele documente: